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La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

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Cronica: Mexico y los aviones

Mensaje por Vengador el Abril 18th 2010, 17:30

Recuerdo del primer mensaje :

Ah quien diria que mexico estaba tan adelantado en su tiempo y hoy en dia todo ha quedado en el pasado... bueno sin mas tiempo que quitarles quisiera compartir con uds unos cuantos videos de la aeronautica mexicana...



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Bueno eso es todo por hoy espero que hayan aprendido algo mas sobre la historia de este pais... viva
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La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Febrero 7th 2015, 23:44




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Fuerza_Aérea_Mexicana_logo_mexican_airforce
History of the Mexican Air Force: 1945-2012

Posted by: Ronnie Serrano October 8, 2013 1 Comment 2,691 Views

After World War II, the Mexican Air Force had a large number of combat aircraft like the Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan, North American Aviation B-25 Mitchell’s, North American Aviation A/T-6 Texans, Douglas A-24B Dauntless, and the Republic P-47D Thunderbolts that were received from the United States during the war. In 1947, the Mexican Air Force had gotten a few more war surplus combat aircraft like the P-47D and A-24B for example when Mexico signed the Rio Treaty. However, as the 1950’s rolled in, the Mexican Air Force combat fleet was falling in a state of disrepair and obsolescent with only a very few F-47D’s and A-24B’s were only operational at the time and relying on the A/T-6 Texans which FAM still had a large numbers of the type. Despite this, SEDENA did a small recovery act to bring back some aircraft into service such as the A-24B, T-6 Texan, F-47, and other aircraft in 1956, but the B-25’s were retired from service.

In 1958, FAM bought a few North American Aviation T-28 Trojans to replace some older aircraft like the A-24B and the older model T-6 trainers in both trainer and attack roles. While that same year, the Mexican Air Force hierarchy was becoming increasing concern with their aging or grounded fleet of aircraft and helicopters like the P-47D that slated to retire that same year.

FAM officials wanted to increase the budget, while at the same time; there were talks about separating FAM from the Mexican Army control and becoming an independent branch. Even though SEDENA (which is the Mexican Army and Air Force) agreed to increase budget, but didn’t agree on a separate branch though. Another problem is that the Mexican government didn’t see any reason to spend any money on the air force let alone the military since they see no threat from other nations and considered them “Brothers”. Nonetheless, this mentality was soon about to change in no time.

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Fuerza_Aérea_Mexicana_logo_mexican_airforce
History of the Mexican Air Force: 1945-2012

Posted by: Ronnie Serrano October 8, 2013 1 Comment 2,691 Views

After World War II, the Mexican Air Force had a large number of combat aircraft like the Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan, North American Aviation B-25 Mitchell’s, North American Aviation A/T-6 Texans, Douglas A-24B Dauntless, and the Republic P-47D Thunderbolts that were received from the United States during the war. In 1947, the Mexican Air Force had gotten a few more war surplus combat aircraft like the P-47D and A-24B for example when Mexico signed the Rio Treaty. However, as the 1950’s rolled in, the Mexican Air Force combat fleet was falling in a state of disrepair and obsolescent with only a very few F-47D’s and A-24B’s were only operational at the time and relying on the A/T-6 Texans which FAM still had a large numbers of the type. Despite this, SEDENA did a small recovery act to bring back some aircraft into service such as the A-24B, T-6 Texan, F-47, and other aircraft in 1956, but the B-25’s were retired from service.

In 1958, FAM bought a few North American Aviation T-28 Trojans to replace some older aircraft like the A-24B and the older model T-6 trainers in both trainer and attack roles. While that same year, the Mexican Air Force hierarchy was becoming increasing concern with their aging or grounded fleet of aircraft and helicopters like the P-47D that slated to retire that same year.

FAM officials wanted to increase the budget, while at the same time; there were talks about separating FAM from the Mexican Army control and becoming an independent branch. Even though SEDENA (which is the Mexican Army and Air Force) agreed to increase budget, but didn’t agree on a separate branch though. Another problem is that the Mexican government didn’t see any reason to spend any money on the air force let alone the military since they see no threat from other nations and considered them “Brothers”. Nonetheless, this mentality was soon about to change in no time.

North-American-B-25J-Mitchell_mexican_airforce

A rare photo of North American B-25J Mitchell in which FAM gotten three of them in World War II, but never saw action though in the war though. The B-25’s did continue to serve with the Mexican Air Force until the mid-1950’s due to its obsolescent and lack of spare parts. (Photo & Credits goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

Wake Up Call: 1958-1959
On December 31, 1958, two P-51D Mustangs of the Guatemalan Air Force attacked a few Mexican fishing boats that were twelve miles off of Mexico. Three Mexican fishermen were killed and fourteen others were injured from the attack in which they were arrested by interrogated by Guatemalan officials. The area though where the fishing boats was highly disputed between Mexico and Guatemala for a last few years definitely after Mexico extended their coastline from three miles to twelve miles. Other issues that the Guatemalan President Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes also had disputes with Mexico over illegal logging, weapons smuggling, and even claims that Mexico was working with Belize to attack Guatemala. The attack wasn’t good news at all for Mexico and the newly elected Mexican President Adolfo Lopez Mateos who put the Mexican military on high alert.

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Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan which served as a light bomber and small transport aircraft for FAM. The Kansan was put on alert status for a possible retaliatory strike against Guatemala in 1959. (Photo & Credits goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

Maj. General Alfonso Cruz Rivera of the Mexican Air Force was planning to attack La Aurora Air Base near Guatemala City, Guatemala which housed the Guatemalan Air Force P-51D Mustangs and other military aircraft based there. The attack squadron would be using three surviving P-47D Thunderbolts for air superiority, T-28 Trojans and AT-6 Texans for attack missions, along with a C-47 Dakota which acted as airborne command post to watch over the attack group. In 1959, the P-47D’s, AT-6’s, and T-28’s were loaded with machine guns, rockets, and napalm bombs with support from the C-47 and took off from Tuxlafor the attack mission against La Aurora air base in Guatemala City.

Once they’ve crossed into Guatemalan airspace, the strike force dropped to eighty feet to avoid being spotted by Guatemalan Air Force radar systems. The Mexican Air Force strike package was very close to La Aurora and were about to attack the base, but before they could attack the base, a message came in from the C-47 via FAM officials to strike force to abort the mission. This wasn’t welcoming news for the strike force and they had to turn back to base in Mexico in disappointment. Nevertheless, the Mexican warplanes did patrol the border in case the Guatemalan Air Force did try a similar attack on Mexican bases, cities, or towns. FAM aircraft also did “mock” attack runs on Guatemalan Army troops as a warning too. In August 1959, the dispute came to a close with Mexican and Guatemalan political officials working with ICC over the exclusive economic zone or EEZ and other issues which started the dispute anyway. Despite the fact, the dispute showed a lot of holes for the Mexican Air Force definitely when it came to obsolete or grounded aircraft due to lack of spares.

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One of the most famous and well known fighter planes to serve with the Mexican Air Force in World War II. The Republic P-47D Thunderbolts served with the 201st Fighter Squadron in Mexican Expeditionary Air Force in which they attack a number of Japanese targets in Philippines and Taiwan during the war. FAM received over 70 P-47D Thunderbolts during and after the war in which they served until 1959. (Photo & Credits goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

Lessons Learned: 1960-1973

In 1957, Maj. General Alfonso Cruz Rivera was doing some touring of USAF, RCAF, and other Latin American countries air force bases and was evaluating a number of jet fighters and trainers most nobly the Lockheed AT-33A Shooting Star. However, they couldn’t afford these new fighters and trainers because budget issues and a lack of threats from other nations. But that was going to change after the Mexican-Guatemalan dispute in 1958-1959 in which the Mexican President Adolfo Lopez Mateos increase the budget for the Mexican military to afford newer military equipment like jet fighters. Maj. General Alfonso Cruz Rivera also brought in Roberto Fierro and Luis Farell Cubillas who was a legendary Mexican Air Force pilot who fought in a few Mexican internal wars like the Cristero War and the Yaqui Campaign during the late-1920’s and early-1930’s and trained pilots during those conflicts and World War II.

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Due to the help from the Farell and Ferrio, FAM bought fifteen ex-RCAF de Havilland Vampire MK.3 fighters that were delivered in 1960 which were based in Santa Lucia with the 200th Fighter Squadron. The Vampire became the first fighter jet to enter service with the Mexican Air Force and was also joined by the Lockheed AT-33A Shooting Stars. (Photo & Credit goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

Both Farell and Fierro spearheaded the purchase of twelve ex-Royal Canadian Air Force de Havilland Vampire MK.3 single seat fighters and three Vampire T.MK.11 two-seat trainers and fifteen former USAF Lockheed AT-33A Shooting Stars in 1961. This right here gave FAM a massive boost in airpower and replaced their obsolete and retired aircraft like the P-47D Thunderbolt for example. The new jet fighters were shown during the Mexican Independence Day Parade in 1962 in which the crowd were cheering and awed by the performance.

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Three Mexican Air Force Lockheed AT-33A Shooting Stars flying in formation during a training mission near a mountain range in 1972. The Shooting Star alongside the Vampire MK.3 was bought in 1960 right after the Mexican/Guatemalan Crisis in 1959 and entered service 1961. (Photo & Credit goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

During the 1960’s, a number of peasants and leftist rebels in southern and even some northern parts of Mexico were attacked by Mexican Air Force attack aircraft such as the T-28 Trojan which was part of the Mexico’s “Dirty War” campaign by the Mexican government and military. However, those reports are so far are unclear and disputed, but neither was denied or confirmed though by Mexican government at the time. Around the same period, FAM increased their combat aircraft fleet with additional AT-33A’s and T-28’s which would base in Mexico City, Merida, Ixtepec, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, and other bases in Mexico.

In the late-1960’s, the Mexican military once again headed into a slowdown period due to the economic downturn going on in the country in which fewer equipment and aircraft were bought during the time. Even despite slowdown, a deal was sign for sixteen IAI 201 Arava multirole transports from Israel which also had COIN capability in 1973.

The Golden Age: 1974-1980
With problems going on in the Middle East definitely after the Yom Kippur War in 1973 and oil embargoes placed Arab nations, Mexico started to boost their oil production to the United States, Europe, and other nations around the world. This turn right there helped boost the Mexican economy along with modernization plans in which included the Mexican military too. While the Mexican Air Force was mostly getting their military aircraft from the United States, this was about to change when FAM started to buy a number of trainers, transports, and helicopters from France, Israel, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Around the early part of the 1970’s, FAM retired their obsolete de Havilland Vampires from service in which left the AT-33A Shooting Stars as their only jet fighter/trainer in service. SEDENA initiated a requirement for a new supersonic fighter and interceptor for the Mexican Air Force to protect Mexican airspace from external threats and to supplement their AT-33A fleet. In mid-1970’s, FAM bought another batch unknown numbers of AT-33A’s to make up the shortfall from their retired Vampires while at the same time, Mexico was looking at new fighters. The news fighters that FAM was interested were the French made Dassault Mirage F-1, Israeli made Israel Aircraft Industries or IAI Kfir C.2 and the U.S made Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II which fit the bill for their air force. So, in 1978, the Mexican Air Force chose the IAI Kfir C.2 in which they’ve ordered twenty-six Kfir C.2/TC.2’s with a proposed license deal to make the Kfir in Mexico and possibly for other foreign air forces.

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One of the biggest buys in the “Golden Age” of Mexican military procurement was the Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainer. Totaling up to 88 airframes, the PC-7 began its service with FAM in advanced training and COIN roles, multiplied into what it became a “Jack of all trades” aircraft in its later years. (Photo & Credit goes to Mariano Garcia Rodriguez)

Later that year, FAM ordered twelve Pilatus PC-7 Turbo Trainers from Switzerland for training and counter-insurgency or COIN role. In 1979, the Carter Administration vetoed the Mexican Kfir deal over the use of the General Electric J79 engines which the United States considered “high tech” in which a few American allies at the time were allowed access to the engine. Despite these hurdles, FAM decided to order the twenty-four Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II for their service in which they will based in Santa Lucia Air Base near Mexico City for air defense and interception roles. In the early-1980, SEDENA ordered another seventy-six PC-7 Turbo Trainers (which was the largest PC-7 order at the time) to finally replace their World War II vintage AT-6 Texans and the T-28 Trojans which were obsolete along with being grounded most of the time due to lack of spare parts.

During the same period, the Mexican Air Force was interested in the new Dassault Alpha Jet and Vought LTV was also offering the A-7 Corsair II to Mexico for attack and strike roles. Nevertheless, the golden age was coming to a close.

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An FAM F-5E Tiger II (nu. 4507) of the 401st Air Defense Squadron alongside with an EMB-145MP (P-99) of the Aerial Surveillance Squadron in the background. After the cancellation of the IAI Kfir C.2 due to political pressure, the Mexican Air Force decided to go with the Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II’s in which 24 (later dropped down to 12 due budget constraints) were ordered in 1981. The Tiger II’s brought the Mexican Air Force into the supersonic age. (Photo & Credit goes to Mariano Garcia Rodriguez)

Slow Down: 1981-1993

In 1981, the Mexican economy once again fell into recession in which a lot projects in Mexico were slow or canceled altogether. The Mexican military gotten hit the worst in which a number of military equipment and aircraft from foreign or indigenous were cutback or canceled altogether too. The Mexican Air Force was one of these branches that gotten hit hard by the recession in which they dropped their proposals for ordering the A-7 Corsair II, Alpha Jet, and other aircraft that they were looking to buy and order.

Also, the Northrop F-5 deal was also cut from twenty-four down to twelve because of the budget shortfall from the economy. However, some of the FAM purchases did made it through the budget shortfall unscathed like the large order of PC-7’s for example which were also needed badly though. Nonetheless, the first F-5 fighters landed at Santa Lucia Air Base in 1982 in which brought the Mexican Air Force to the supersonic era! In mid-1980’s, FAM was finally phasing out last of their AT-6’s and T-28’s and the new PC-7’s were taking they’re places. While some of the PC-7’s are use in pure training role and based at Zapopan, the others are use in training, COIN, and somewhat interception roles.

Nevertheless, in 1986, FAM was looking to buy 18 Northrop F-20 Tigersharks to complement their F-5E/F fleet. But sadly it never came to fruition mostly due to economic and political reasoning. In 1988, Mexican Air Force ordered their last batch of unknown number of AT-33A’s from the United States to help out with advanced training, attack, and interception roles for the F-5 fleet. In the early part of the 1990’s, the Mexican economy was slowly getting better, but another threat started too loomed from within Mexico.

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Two Fuerza Aerea Mexicana F-5E Tigers part of the 401st Air Defense Squadron flying in formation somewhere in Mexico in 1990. (Photo & Credit goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

Chiapas War: 1994

While Mexico was recovery from the worst financial crisis in history, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari along with U.S President George W. Bush and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed NAFTA in 1992. However, NAFTA was delayed due to both U.S and Canadian elections in which the new U.S President Bill Clinton and Prime Minister Jean Chretien approved NAFTA in 1994. While the NAFTA was very much controversial in United States and Canada, it was super hated in Mexico in which Article 27 in the Mexican Constitution which protected Mexican land owners from businesses and private enterprises was removed because it didn’t fit into NAFTA proposals.

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While this picture was taken sometime in the 1980’s, these same PC-7’s armed with rocket pods and machine gun pods which were used in the controversial 12 day conflict in Chiapas in 1994. The PC-7’s along with helicopter gunships like the MD-530, UH-60A Blackhawk, Bell 212 Huey, and reports of the IAI Arava were used to attack EZLN rebel strongholds in Chiapas and providing close air support to the Mexican Army on the ground during the conflict. (Photos & Credits goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

The first day it was signed into law, a group called the Zapatista Army of National Liberation or better known as EZLN which is left wing group based out of Chiapas who supports the Mexican and Indigenous Indian rights and their lands took over several towns and block entrances from state and federal officials. President Salinas ordered the Mexican military and Federal units into Chiapas in which troops, armored vehicles, and helicopters were sent there to quell the violence.

While the Chiapas Conflict was regarded as the “Mexico’s Helicopter War”, it wasn’t long before the Mexican Air Force started to use the PC-7 and also reports that the IAI Arava in attack roles. The PC-7’s, Aravas, along with MD-530’s and UH-60’s which were purchase from the United States was used close air support (CAS) in protecting the troops and attack EZLN positions in the mountains and other areas around Chiapas with rockets, gun pods, and bombs. Other aircraft like the AT-33A’s and the F-5E’s were also deployed to Chiapas, but didn’t see any combat though. The conflict lasted till January 12th when the ceasefire was sign along with EZLN rebels being defeated too.

While this conflict was getting world attention, it wasn’t long before some nations put an embargo on Mexico on military weapon systems. Switzerland who has been Mexico big supplier of military weapons put an embargo on PC-7 parts and even canceled the order for forty-eight new PC-9’s that FAM placed a year earlier after learning that their PC-7’s that they sold Mexico in the late-1970’s were being used to attack rebels. This embargo started to slowly hurt the Mexican Air Force PC-7 fleet in which some of them were withdrawn and cannibalized for spares.

Proposals that went Nowhere: 1995-2005

After the Chiapas conflict, SEDENA and SEMAR started to more attention on helicopters, transport aircraft, and small reconnaissance aircraft which became more important for the Mexican military. Even despite the successful use of the PC-7’s and Aravas during the conflict, but plans to acquire additional combat aircraft have taken a backseat. While this seem like the case, but it wasn’t the case since FAM was looking at replacing their older AT-33A Shooting Stars and complement their F-5E/F Tiger II’s. FAM started to show interest in the Argentine made FMA IA-63 Pampa advanced trainer and light combat aircraft, but they were ordered for reasons unknown. After the Chiapas War, SEDENA found some nations like Switzerland and the United States placing embargoes and were denied certain equipment and so they’ve decided to look towards the Eastern Bloc nations like Russia and Ukraine for military equipment which cheaper and less political hassle compared to their Western counterparts.

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Two Northrop F-5E Tiger II’s of the 401st Air Defense Squadron flying over Mexico City. As of now, the F-5E/F Tiger II’s are the Mexican Air Force sole fighter and attack jet since the AT-33A Shooting Stars were withdrawn from service in 2008. (Photo & Credit goes to Jose Antonio Quevedo)

So in 1998, Mexico was showing interest in the Aero L-39 Albatros, Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrum, and the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot from Ukraine and Russia, but this to fell through due to cost and maintainability of the aircraft. Later that year, Switzerland removed the arms embargo in which Mexico started to get spare parts for their PC-7’s and PC-6 aircraft. As the new millennium along with a new Mexican President Vicente Fox who just entered office in 2000, the military was getting another major overhaul. In 2002, reports that Mexico was looking buy the MiG-29 and Su-25, but once again, nothing conclusive came out of these reports either. Additional reports coming from a few defense sites and military forums a year later claimed that the Mexican Air Force was going to retire their F-5 fleet because they see no use for them. However, those reports were denied by SEDENA calling them false and the F-5 fleet was very much important for the security of Mexico.

Around 2004, United States offered Mexico ten ex-USAF F-16A and two F-16B Block 15 MLU for $1.2 billion dollars that included training, spares, and weapons such as AIM-9 Sidewinder, AGM-65 Maverick, and precision guided munitions like the GBU-10/12 LGBs as an F-5 replacement. Granting the deal looked good on paper for FAM, nonetheless it was later rejected because the F-16’s were considered old and the price for them was too expensive. Around this period, some of the air force hierarchy went to Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, and other nations to look at buying additional F-5E/F Tiger II are to supplement their existing Tiger II’s along with plans to upgrade them with inflight refueling probes, radar, and weapon systems. However, apart from these proposals, none of them went forward for a number of reasons.

Enter the Texan II’s: 2006-2012

At the same time that the Fuerza Aerea Mexicana was looking for a new combat aircraft, they were also looking at a new advanced trainers and attack aircraft to replace the older AT-33A’s and the PC-7’s that were and are in service. The air force was looking at other trainers like the Embraer EMB-314 Super Tucano, Hawker Beechcraft T-6C Texan II, KAI KT-1 Woongbi, and the Pilatus PC-9M. In September of 2006, FAM received two Pilatus PC-9M’s in which they’ve landed at Santa Lucia Air Base from Switzerland. Apart from that PC-9M order that year, another majorreport hit the defense sites and military forums that the United States offered the Mexican Air Force forty ex-U.S Navy McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18A/B Hornets as a replacement for the F-5 fleet. While the Hornet proposal was talked about, another offer from South Korea which they’ve offered 40 ex-RoKAF F-5A/B Freedom Fighters for a low price of $100 for each aircraft, but it was turned down due obsolescent of the aircraft.

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The Pilatus PC-9M beat out the Super Tucano, PC-21, and the KT-1 for FAM’s new advanced trainer/COIN competition in 2005. However, after a few years testing them out, FAM found the PC-9M didn’t meet their criteria and were later replaced by the T-6C+ Texan II a few years later. (Photos & Credits goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

Nevertheless, the Hornet proposal never went anywhere though with some questioning the report was even real at all since the U.S never confirmed offer and FAM once again was back at square one looking for a new combat aircraft. Even though the Freedom Fighter and Hornet deals was a bust, another report coming out of a Russian newspaper in 2006 reported that Rosoboronexport was in talks with Mexico about acquiring some MiG-29’s, but it was later denounced as false too.

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While it was in its twilights of it service, This AT-33A is flying with in its 45th Anniversary colors somewhere in Mexico. The Lockheed AT-33A Shooting Stars were finally phase out of service in 2008 with its former roles were handed off to the PC-7 Turbo Trainer. (Photo & Credits goes to FAM or Mexican Air Force)

In 2007, Mexican Air Force general Guillermo Galvan Galvan requested additional funding for either the F-16’s and F/A-18’s along with additional AEW&C, air defense systems, and radar systems from the Mexican Congress and Senate since the F-5 fleet, radars, and air defense systems were considered inadequate or obsolete. While despite the pleas from the General Galvan, the Mexican government and SEDENA had other priorities and apart from that, the military was putting most of its focus on fighting the drug cartels.

Nonetheless, the SEDENA did approved a modest upgrade for the F-5 fleet which was fitted with AN/APQ-159(V)5 radar system which is an improvement over the older AN/APQ-139 radar system. Finally, in 2008, the Mexican Air Force bid farewell to the AT-33A Shooting Star after serving 47 years in service. FAM also initiated Project SIVA (Integrated Air-Surveillance System) in 2010 in which started a In 2011, the Mexican Air Force chosen the Hawker Beechcraft (Raytheon) T-6C+ Texan II over the Embraer EMB-314 Super Tucano and the Pilatus PC-9M advanced trainers as a replacement for their older PC-7 Turbo Trainers. SEDENA has plans to acquire over 60-70 AT-6 and T-6C+ Texan II’s in both training role and ground attack roles before the end of the decade.

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FAM’s Hawker Beechcraft T-6C+ Texan II flying over Mexico City during the Sept 16th Mexico’s Independence Day Parade in 2013. The T-6C+ along with the future AT-6 Texan II will be replacing the older PC-7’s from service later this decade. (Photo & Credit goes to Jose Antonio Quevedo)


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"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Febrero 7th 2015, 23:59


Mexican Air Force Pilots Film 11 UFOs
Associated Press - 5/11/2004
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Mexican Air Force pilots filmed 11 unidentified flying objects in the skies over southern Campeche state, a Defense Department spokesman confirmed Tuesday. A videotape made widely available to the news media on Tuesday shows the bright objects, some sharp points of light and others like large headlights, moving rapidly in what appears to be a late-evening sky.
MEXICO CITY (AP) - Mexican Air Force pilots filmed 11 unidentified flying objects in the skies over southern Campeche state, a Defense Department spokesman confirmed Tuesday.

A videotape made widely available to the news media on Tuesday shows the bright objects, some sharp points of light and others like large headlights, moving rapidly in what appears to be a late-evening sky.

The lights were filmed on March 5 by pilots using infrared equipment. They appeared to be flying at an altitude of about 3,500 meters (11,480 feet), and allegedly surrounded the Air Force jet as it conducted routine anti-drug trafficking vigilance in Campeche. Only three of the objects showed up on the plane's radar.

``Was I afraid? Yes. A little afraid because we were facing something that had never happened before,'' said radar operator Lt. German Marin in a taped interview made public Tuesday.

``I couldn't say what it was ... but I think they're completely real,'' added Lt. Mario Adrian Vazquez, the infrared equipment operator. Vazquez insisted that there was no way to alter the recorded images.

The plane's captain, Maj. Magdaleno Castanon, said the military jets chased the lights ``and I believe they could feel we were pursuing them.''

When the jets stopped following the objects, they disappeared, he said.

A Defense Department spokesman confirmed Tuesday that the videotape was filmed by members of the Mexican Air Force. The spokesman declined to comment further and spoke on customary condition of anonymity.

The video was first aired on national television Monday night then again at a news conference Tuesday by Jaime Maussan, a Mexican investigator who has dedicated the past 10 years to studying UFOs.

``This is historic news,'' Maussan told reporters. ``Hundreds of videos (of UFOs) exist, but none had the backing of the armed forces of any country. ... The armed forces don't perpetuate frauds.''

Maussan said Secretary of Defense Gen. Ricardo Vega Garcia gave him the video on April 22.
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__________________________________________________________________________________________________
"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Febrero 8th 2015, 00:01



Artículo de Jorge Medellín sobre modernización de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana
Enlace: Artículo de Jorge Medellín sobre modernización de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana

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Nueva etapa en la FAM

Jorge Alejandro Medellín

1.- El general Salvador Cienfuegos Zepeda cosechará en los próximos años una parte importante del terreno abonado en el sexenio pasado por su antecesor, Guillermo Galván Galván, en lo referente a la modernización de la Fuerza Aérea mexicana (FAM), arma atrasada, carente de material acorde al contexto que vive el país y siempre en espera de migajas y reconocimiento a sus misiones.

2.- Con Felipe Calderón el general Galván advirtió sobre el grave déficit de tripulaciones de la FAM para el mínimo cumplimiento de sus misiones (255 de las 554 que debía tener, mencionó en noviembre de 2007 a legisladores federales), el "marcado desgaste, fatiga", así como la disminuida capacidad operativa de los aparatos que integraban la flota aérea, el riesgo de operar las Cessnas C-182 Slyline "sumamente riesgosa, por sus características eminentemente civiles".

Galván dijo en 2007 que la FAM contaba en total con 427 aeronaves. Habló en detalle sobre las 73 de Pelea, las 154 de Reconocimiento, las 99 de transporte y las 97 de Adiestramiento que preocupaban más por sus limitaciones y desgaste.

3.- Al final de la presente administración, les decía Galván, "la rama de transporte de Ala Fija desaparecerá; de igual manera la de Pelea, con excepción de dos PC-9 y la de Reconocimiento, mermarán su operatividad en un 50%..."

4.- La guerra antidrogas de Calderón implicó en principio un viraje en los planes y necesidades expresadas por Galván y su Estado Mayor, que puso sobre la mesa la urgencia de retomar y dinamizar la parte de la doctrina militar referente a la defensa ante amenazas externas.

Galván pidió presupuesto para adquirir una flota de 12 jets F-16 "con muy superiores prestaciones técnicas y tecnológicas a las que poseen los F-5 con que contamos actualmente". El general proponía comprar cuatro aparatos F-16 por año a partir del 2008 y hasta el 2010, con una inversión de 1,600 millones de pesos por año.
La FAM contaba entonces con 10 F-5 de los 12 comprados en 1982 de fábrica a la Northrop Grumman. Hoy solo quedan operativas siete de estas aeronaves.

5.- El general Cienfuegos recibió la crisis de la FAM y buscó fórmulas para paliar el declive de una flota aérea que, según Galván, necesitaba cubrir urgentemente ocho puntos, de los cuales tres tenían qué ver con la "sustitución de aeronaves de transporte, adquisición de una aeronave para el sistema de vigilancia aérea y sustitución de aeronaves de reconocimiento".

6.- Así, de los 72 Pilatus PC-7 que Galván dijo existían en el inicio del sexenio calderonista (37 de Adiestramiento y 35 de Pelea), 60 serán remplazados en los próximos meses por aparatos T-6 Texan, de fabricación estadunidense.
Alrededor de le 40 por ciento de las partes del T-6 se fabrican ya en México, en el estado de Nuevo León, en complejos montados por inversionistas norteamericanos y nacionales.

7.- La cosecha de Cienfuegos pasará también por la compra de entre 20 y 30 jets de entrenamiento L-159 Alca, fabricados por Aero Vodochody, empresa checa. Estos aparatos cuentan con prestaciones para asumir funciones de defensa e intercepción.
Con ellos, los mandos de la FAM crearán dos escuadrones nuevos y se buscará retomar la tarea de intercepción y vigilancia que durante casi tres décadas cumplieron exitosamente los T-33 a reacción que fueron el emblema de la FAM.

8.- Los L-159 Alca son jets de entrenamiento ligero cuyo precio oscila entre los 13 y los 14 millones y medio de dólares cada uno. Pueden llevar misiles aire-aire Sidewinder y ASRAAM y aire-tierra AGM- 65 Maverick. Esta aeronave es utilizada principalmente en la República Checa, en Irak y en España.

9.- La modernización de la FAM, por lo menos en cuanto a la compra de material aéreo para suplir al desgastado y riesgoso equipo con el que se cuenta aún, es un paso importante para darle coherencia a una incipiente política y estrategia de defensa nacional en la que la Sedena y la Marina trabajan desde hace medio año, a marchas forzadas, para garantizar en lo mínimo la seguridad y la estabilidad del país.

10.- Cienfuegos verá cristalizarse varios de los puntos mencionados por el general Galván en su diagnóstico sobre la situación de las fuerzas armadas mexicanas, especialmente el relacionado con la FAM, que entrará en fase de modernización, pero no de arma independiente. El Ejército moderno anunciado por el general secretario de la Defensa Nacional, deberá esperar a que otro alto mando lleve la modernización a terrenos más que operativos.
Lograr un Ejército y Fuerza Aérea modernos, a la altura de otros en el mundo, requiere una visión y comprensión del tema del tamaño de esa misión.

Twitter: @JorgeMedellin95
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"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

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Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Febrero 10th 2015, 01:15


Los Orígenes
“…Líbrense las órdenes necesarias a efecto de que desde esta fecha, sea creada el Arma de Aviación Militar, dentro del Ejército Constitucionalista designándose Jefe de dicha Arma al C. Mayor de Estado Mayor de la Primera Jefatura, Alberto Leopoldo Salinas Carranza ; quien, al mismo tiempo, deja de pertenecer al Arma de Caballería para causar alta en el escalafón del Ejército Constitucionalista, como Piloto Aviador Militar…”


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Los Orígenes

La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana tiene su origen en el año de 1915, cuando el entonces Jefe del Ejército Constitucionalista, Don Venustiano Carranza, convencido de las enormes posibilidades del empleo de la Aviación en Campaña, expide el 5 de febrero de 1915 el decreto mediante el cual se crea el Arma de Aviación Militar.

A principios del siglo pasado visionarios en el manejo y empleo militar de globos y dirigibles, tuvieron el acierto de enviar a personal militar para abundar en este estudio al continente europeo y poder utilizarlos en nuestro país. Por otro lado, hombres como Juan Guillermo Villasana López y Eduardo Aldasoro Suárez, ya se encontraban realizando pruebas con motores de automóvil y estructuras de madera y metal para intentar realizar el sueño de poder volar.

La necesidad de inventar un aparato para realizar esta proeza, trajo la necesidad de que estos inventores, desarrollaran los conocimientos sobre diseño, aerodinámica, peso, balance y propulsión de algún mecanismo que diera la sustentación necesaria para mantener en vuelo a un aparato más pesado que el aire.
Última actualización el jueves, 13 noviembre 2014 09:34
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"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Febrero 13th 2015, 23:14


lunes, 9 de febrero de 2015
LA FUERZA AEREA MEXICANA A 100 AÑOS DE DISTANCIA
Por: José Antonio Quevedo

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El 10 de febrero de 2015 se cumplieron 100 años de la creación de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana, (FAM) viéndolo en retrospectiva si no es el momento óptimo de esta Fuerza, si es uno de sus mejores, a pesar de lo que muchos puedan pensar, la flota, adiestramiento y mantenimiento en la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana es de lo mejor, una revisión de sus actividades el último año así lo indican:

Mediante el empleo de Plataformas Aéreas EMB-145 y C26A, se efectuaron 197 misiones de vigilancia y reconocimiento aéreo, con un total de 683:08 horas de vuelo, con el fin de localizar aeronaves ilícitas volando dentro del espacio aéreo mexicano, así como ubicar pistas no autorizadas o franjas de terreno susceptibles de ser empleadas para el aterrizaje ilegal de aeronaves.

El grado de capacitación de las tripulaciones de vuelo se mantiene por medio del adiestramiento permanente, por lo que del 1 de septiembre de 2013 al 31 de agosto de 2014 se realizó un promedio de 06:11 horas mensuales de vuelo por piloto aviador.

El adiestramiento de las tripulaciones de vuelo es un factor primordial para garantizar la seguridad aérea, así como para el cumplimiento de manera eficiente de las operaciones aéreas que desarrolla la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana, por lo que del 1 de septiembre de 2013 al 31 de agosto de 2014, se han realizado 25 mil 347 operaciones aéreas de adiestramiento, con un total de 36 mil 556 horas de vuelo, además se calificó a pilotos aviadores en los diferentes grados de adiestramiento

Asimismo, en apoyo a las operaciones que realizan las regiones y zonas militares dentro de la estrategia para prevenir la violencia en el territorio nacional, se mantuvieron desplegadas un promedio de 60 aeronaves, tanto de ala fija como de ala rotativa.

Se materializaron un mil 800 inspecciones de diferentes tipos, lográndose con ello mantener el 80 por ciento de operatividad en la flota de aeronaves de cargo en la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana.

Del 1 de septiembre de 2013 al 31 de agosto de 2014, fueron adquiridos: un avión Learjet 45 XR, 18 aviones T-6C+, un helicóptero AGUSTA AW109SP y un avión CHALLENGER 605, con los cuales se incrementa la capacidad operativa de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana.

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Este último punto es de suma importancia ya que al parecer han quedado atrás las épocas en las que el equipamiento aeronáutico de la FAM era de segunda mano, lo que trajo consigo poca disponibilidad, pobre adiestramiento y falta de capacidad para afrontar las emergencias.

En este momento está llevándose a cabo la transición en los Escuadrones aéreos al T-6C Texan II, se espera la llegada de los helicópteros UH-60M, entrenadores Grob 120TP y el C-130J.

En estos últimos 100 años, si a equipamiento aeronáutico nos referimos, podemos identificar claramente tres etapas de esplendor de la FAM:

La Segunda Guerra Mundial y el Escuadrón 201, ya que es en esta fecha cuando la aviación militar mexicana obtiene su carácter constitucional aunque no la independencia de la SEDENA, como si lo hizo la Armada de México, además el reequipamiento para defensa, trajo aviones en cantidades nunca antes vista.

En 1955 a través del Plan de Recuperación, el entonces Comandante de la FAM, Gral. Alfonso Cruz Rivera, logro poner en operación 140 aviones en lugar de los 28 aviones que recibió en activo durante 1955. Este hecho histórico dentro de la FAM colocó a la fuerza aérea en un nivel de operatividad sin precedentes.

Y los primeros años de la década de los ochenta cuando se dio un salto tecnológico al sustituir los aviones a pistón como el T-28 por los modernos turbohélice PC-7 en todos los Escuadrones Aéreos. Sumado a la llegada de la FAM a la era supersónica a través del entonces sofisticado Northrop F-5E/F.

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En la actualidad las actividades de la FAM se encuentran regidas por los programas sectoriales, el actual 2012-2018 es muy claro respecto a las actividades que deberá realizar esta fuerza armada respecto a su equipamiento:

Meta 8 Incrementar en un 20% la movilidad táctica y en un 50% la movilidad estratégica. Adquirir:

 172 aeronaves y 3 Sistemas Aéreos no Tripulados.

En comparación con otras épocas el programa sectorial es ambicioso y se ha estado cumpliendo al dotar a la FAM de mayores capacidades con equipo nuevo y más y mejor adiestramiento para las tripulaciones y personal de apoyo.

A pesar de lo anterior y de que este plan ya involucra términos y conceptos como la interacción entre las distintas fuerzas; el Ejército, la Armada y la Fuerza Aérea, este aun no retoma el concepto de poder aéreo. Ya que si nos remitimos únicamente al análisis de lo que hoy es la FAM, nos daremos cuenta que esta fuerza, es la más pequeña en efectivos, aeronaves y desarrollo tecnológico de entre los países del G-20 del que México forma parte.

Para la aviación militar mexicana, el tamaño y equipamiento de la FAM inicia con la no aplicación del concepto del poder aéreo y por ende de la falta de un diseño estructural que esté acorde con las necesidades reales del país, y poco desarrollo que ha tenido la industria aeroespacial realmente mexicana.

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Si México aspira a ocupar un lugar dentro de las naciones desarrolladas, invariablemente parte de ese andamiaje tiene que pasar por el sector defensa. Un país que aspira a formar parte de los países desarrollados del planeta debe ser tener capacidades defensivas eficaces y además mantener una política que tienda hacia la autosuficiencia en esta materia, de acuerdo a las realidades geopolíticas y económicas del globo y del país, para lo cual un factor clave desde cualquier punto de vista táctico y estratégico, es su poder aéreo, aunque toda la evidencia apunta a que esta realidad, es percibida por todo el orbe, excepto en México.

En la historia mundial sobran los ejemplos de desarrollos aeronáuticos civiles y militares que se materializan en la punta de lanza de una industria aeroespacial propia, como bien lo ha demostrado Brasil con la historia de éxito de Embraer. En ese sentido México comparado con Brasil lleva un retraso de por lo menos 50 años, en el desarrollo de su industria aeroespacial, el carecer de una fuerza aérea con al menos independencia de gestión, ha llevado a este gran rezago, ya que las decisiones de adquisiciones y desarrollos tecnológicos propios de una fuerza aérea moderna son detenidos por factores como los tiempos de entrega, la logística para poner en punto las aeronaves y a veces simplemente por desinterés y desconocimiento del tema. En las decisiones de la Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional (SEDENA) la prioridad es el Ejército, manteniendo una estructura defensiva que no cuenta con los instrumentos adecuados para operar en el siglo XXI

El día de hoy existen varias cuestiones que deberían ser puestas en la mesa de discusión respecto a la política de defensa aérea mexicana. En la doctrina militar básica, textualmente se aprecia que el Poder Aéreo requiere un cuidadoso balance de capacidades y medios, de los cuales depende la efectividad y eficiencia del mismo. La suma de aviones de combate, ofensivos y defensivos, que es la principal fuerza, debe acompañarse con medios de transporte, de mando y control que permitan planificar, coordinar y dirigir las operaciones. Con estos medios se cuenta para prestar resistencia y combatir los diversos riesgos y/o ataques. Que además deben ser apoyados por sistemas de detección y de defensa antiaérea más infraestructura y logística capaz de sostener las operaciones.

Podemos poner como ejemplo a la flota de combate, cuyo panorama es complicado porque al parecer el destino final de la flota de F-5E/F es la desactivación sin pensar siquiera en una posible modernización que permitiera proyectar una compra de nuevos aviones en un plazo más largo y mejor planeado que trajera más beneficios al país, sin dejar de operar la defensa aérea como ocurrió cuando se dieron de baja los aviones Vampiros Mk-3 en 1967 y no fue sino hasta 1982 que se volvió a tener otra aeronave de pelea con la activación del F-5E/F.

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Finalmente el aumentar el presupuesto, no ayuda de mucho si este no viene acompañado de un adecuado análisis que permita potenciar ese recurso enfatizando la construcción de una fuerza militar basada en una política que permita disponer de los medios materiales y humanos más adecuados para el mejor desarrollo de sus objetivos, integrando sus componentes de aire, mar y tierra en aquellos para lo que son más aptos, así las cosas el cambio en la Política de Defensa Mexicana debe ser un hecho para los próximos años de eso depende en buena medida el futuro y viabilidad de las Fuerzas Armadas Mexicanas.

Según el Banco Mundial, entre 2009 y 2012 México estuvo a la par de Irlanda, Nicaragua, República Dominicana y Malta en cuanto a financiamiento de sus fuerzas armadas Solo superó a Guatemala (que destinó 0.4 por ciento del PIB), Ghana (0.3), Moldavia (0.3) y Mauricio (0.2).

Colombia es el país que más invierte en defensa en América Latina. En 2012 se colocó en 3.3 por ciento de su producto interno bruto, de acuerdo con el organismo mundial. En tanto, Estados Unidos destinó en ese periodo 4.2 por ciento del PIB; Rusia, 4.5 por ciento; Israel, 5.7 por ciento; Jornada, 4.7 por ciento; Omán, 8.6 por ciento; Sudán del Sur, 9.4 por ciento, y Arabia Saudita, 8.0 por ciento.

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[/quote]

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"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

Mensaje por Lanceros de Toluca el Marzo 28th 2015, 18:17

Se fusionan diversos temas.

Lanceros de Toluca
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Re: La Fuerza Aérea Mexicana a lo largo de cien años

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