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A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

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A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Diciembre 15th 2014, 23:03

Bueno, Cómo ustedes sab®an (o deberían saber) Muchas naciones, entre ellas rusia, canada, eu, etc., están peleando por el derecho a explotar los recursos naturales de cierta zona del planeta. Normalmente me importaria muy poco, sallo que se trata del polo norte y que su deshielo hará que a todas las naciones al sur se las cargue la v&#!@.

Y como esto es un tema de interés mundial.......

Yo creo que el polo norte deberia ser santuario de la humanidad.


Denmark Just Claimed The North Pole

Jeremy Bender

Dec. 15, 2014, 4:47 PM
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Competition in the Arctic is heating up as Denmark has laid claim to the North Pole.

Copenhagen is citing scientific data showing that Greenland, which is an autonomous country within Denmark, sits atop a continental shelf connected to a ridge beneath the Arctic Circle. The Associated Press reports that Danish Foreign Minister Martin Lidegaard said this new information provides the country with a claim to the region and, more critically, the energy resources thought to be in the Arctic,

Lidegaard said Denmark would take its claim to the UN for an eventual decision on the control of the area.

"This is a historical milestone for Denmark and many others as the area has an impact on the lives of lot of people. After the UN panel had taken a decision based on scientific data, comes a political process," Lidegaard told the AP on Friday. "I expect this to take some time. An answer will come in a few decades."

The US currently estimates that the Arctic sea bed could contain 15% of the earth's remaining oil, along with 30% of the planet's natural gas and 20% of its liquefied natural gas. Whichever country is able to successfully claim the Arctic would have the right to extract these resources.



Denmark has claimed the North Pole.

Currently, five countries lay competing claims to the Arctic: the US, Canada, Russia, Norway, and Denmark. Each of these nations borders the Arctic Ocean and is free to pursue its own policies within its declared Arctic boundaries.

By claiming that a ridge connects Greenland to the Arctic sea bed, though, Denmark could hypothetically lay complete claim to any mineral and petroleum wealth that could be discovered on the ocean floor.

Beyond natural wealth, whichever country controls the Arctic can claim control over the Northern Sea Route. Once more of the polar sea ice melts, shipping over the top of the world will become the quickest way to move goods around the world. The route, which Russia wants to control, would take only 35 days to ship from Europe to Asia compared to the 48-day journey between the continents via the Suez Canal.



The Northern Sea Route.

In trying to lay claim to the Arctic, Denmark will likely find itself butting heads with Russia.

Moscow has also claimed that based on scientific research, a Russian continental shelf extends further below the pole than previously contended. Russia's natural resources minister said that Moscow would seek to expand its Arctic borders by 1.2 million square kilometers through the UN.

Russia is simultaneously embarking upon a rapid militarization of its Arctic coast. Moscow has opened its third military port, out of a proposed 16, along the Arctic. By 2025, Russia also hopes to also have 13 airfields and 10 air-defense radar stations in the region.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Enero 4th 2015, 16:27


Russia Is Deploying A Drone Fleet To The Arctic

Jeremy Bender

Dec. 29, 2014, 3:52 PM
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Orlan-10 Droneen.wikipedia.orgA Russian Orlan-10 drone
See Also
Denmark Just Claimed The North Pole
Russia Has Begun Militarizing The Arctic
The Most Isolated US Military Base Could Get A Lot More Important

Russia plans on deploying a series of drones to the Arctic before the end of the year as the country dedicates increasing resources towards militarization of the frozen north, Russian news agency Tass reports.

Russia will begin with the deployment of Orlan-10 drones in the Eastern Military District. The first trial flights of the drones will take place in early 2015. These trials will have an emphasis on low temperature conditions.

According to Tass, the drones will be used for surveillance and reconnaissance along Russian territorial waters. The Orlan-10s will also be used in combat training tasks along the shore of the Arctic Ocean.

The deployment of drones to the Arctic comes as Russia plans to rapidly upgrade its navy and air force, partly in order to dominate the waterway emerging from the melting of polar ice. This attempted militarization of the Arctic includes the deployment of 40 warships alongside the purchase of 150 new aircraft for Russia's Arctic Forces.

To support the rising number of military equipment and personnel that Russia is shifting to the Arctic, Moscow is also undertaking a construction blitz across the region. Russia plans to create 13 airfields and ten air-defense radar stations in the Arctic in addition to a string of 16 deepwater ports.

Simultaneously, Russia is training a commando detachment specifically for Arctic warfare. A second Arctic-warfare brigade will be ready by 2017.

Russia's militarization of the Arctic is aimed at putting Moscow in a prime position to exploit the vast amounts of untapped fossil fuels lying in the Arctic sea bed. The US estimates that upwards of 15% of the earth's remaining oil, 30% of its natural gas, and 20% of its liquefied natural gas are stored under the Arctic.

SEE ALSO: Here are 2 ways Russia's provocative stunts could lead to war
http://www.businessinsider.com/russia-creating-arctic-drone-fleet-2014-12?nr_email_referer=1&utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_content=MarketsSelect

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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ivan_077
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Re: A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

Mensaje por ivan_077 el Enero 27th 2015, 04:56


Russia's Plans for Arctic Supremacy
Analysis
January 16, 2015 | 10:30 GMT Print Text Size


Elements from the Russian Army's Guards Engineer Brigade and Engineer Camouflage Regiment train in Arctic conditions, Jan. 19, 2011. (RIA Novosti/Wikimedia)
Summary

Although the crisis in Ukraine continues to focus attention on Russia's western border, Moscow is seeking to exploit a more lucrative prize along its vast northern frontage: the Arctic Circle. Melting ice has opened up new transit routes and revealed previously inaccessible oil and mineral deposits. Facing a year of harsh economic constraints, securing exploitable energy reserves remains a top priority for Moscow. The planned militarization of the Arctic is already underway, and funding is secured through 2015 (the Ministry of Defense was the only Kremlin ministry not to be curtailed in the most recent budget.) With Russia aiming to consolidate its strength by the end of the year, surrounding countries are already reassessing their positions in the face of an overwhelming regional force.
Analysis

Russia's traditional view of the outside world is colored by a deep sense of insecurity and paranoia. This is best exemplified by the events in Ukraine, where the Kremlin acted to preserve its traditional geographic bulwark against the West. This pattern of protectionism is also apparent in Moscow's current understanding and approach to the situation in the Arctic. Of the eight countries of the Arctic Council, five are members of NATO, fueling Russia's suspicion that opposing forces are massing against it. Although friction with Kiev and the West has overshadowed Russia's military build-up in the Arctic, Moscow's long-term ambitions for the region are making other Arctic countries nervous, Norway in particular.

Russia is interested in the Arctic for a number of reasons, though natural resources and pure geopolitical imperatives are the major driving forces behind Moscow's thinking. The Arctic contains an estimated 30 percent of the world's undiscovered natural gas and 13 percent of its undiscovered oil reserves, regarded by Moscow as important sources of foreign investment that are critical to the country's economic development. The Northern Sea Route from East Asia to Europe via the Arctic Ocean provides another economic opportunity for developing infrastructure in northern Russia.

These resources and transit lanes, however, are also attractive to other Arctic countries, potentially turning the region into a political battleground. The U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea regulates ownership of the Arctic, allowing for exclusive economic zones stretching 200 miles from land and even further if undersea resources sit on a continental shelf. Inhospitable conditions made previous boundary disputes futile, so the Arctic interior remains open to territorial claims and disputes. The interest expressed by other countries feeds Russia's determination to make its role as a central Arctic nation clear by any means possible, including the use of military pressure.




Russia's Arctic Build-Up

Militarizing the Arctic will be a key imperative for the Russian military throughout 2015 and beyond — alongside modernization in general and bolstering forces in Crimea and the Kaliningrad exclave. According to the Russian Ministry of Defense, Soviet-era bases in the Arctic are being reactivated in response to NATO's renewed interest in the region. The airstrip on the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya is being renovated to accommodate modern and next generation fighter aircraft in addition to advanced S400 air defense systems. Part of the Northern Fleet will also be based on the island chain, which is ideally positioned for operations in the Arctic region. The Northern Fleet represents two-thirds of the entire Russian Navy, which is the only navy in the world to operate nuclear-powered icebreaker ships. In addition, Moscow announced the formation of a new 6,000-soldier military group in the far north consisting of two motorized infantry brigades located in the Murmansk area and the Yamal-Nenets autonomous region. Radar and ground guidance systems are also planned for Franz Josef Land, Wrangel Island and Cape Schmidt. The Federal Security Service plans to increase the number of border guards on Russia's northern perimeter as well.

The recent Vostok 2014 full-scale military exercise — the biggest since the collapse of the Soviet Union — was a revealing indication of Russia's intentions in the Arctic. Russian troops, sailors and airmen carried out combat training missions in the region, prominently deploying Pantsir-S (air defense) and Iskander-M (theater ballistic missile) weapon systems, among others. Such activities inevitably evoke the atmosphere of the Cold War, when the region was the focus of U.S. and NATO attention. Furthermore, Russia's Northern Fleet announced that its Independent Marine Infantry Brigade will undergo intensive training in the Arctic region throughout 2015.


The Kremlin reiterated its intention to field a formidable combined arms force to protect its political and economic interests in the Arctic by 2020. Going into 2015, it is estimated that the Russian armed forces have around 56 military aircraft and 122 helicopters in the Arctic region. Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu stated that 14 military airfields on Russia's Arctic seaboard would be operational by the end of the year. The Ministry of Defense also said some of the 50 modernized MiG-31BM Foxhound interceptors expected by 2019 will be charged with defense duties over the Arctic. Despite the economic problems plaguing Russia, the Ministry of Defense managed to escape the significant budget cuts levied against most other ministries. In fact, the Kremlin has increased defense spending by 20 percent, a clear indication of Russia's priorities for 2015 and a likely indication that Moscow intends to meet its military commitments.

At the end of 2014, Russia established a unified strategic command based around the existing command architecture of the Northern Fleet. The force structure successfully facilitates a military reach across the islands of Russia's northern territories, allowing for better oversight and control of the trade route from China to Norway. This structure also serves the purpose of monitoring — and potentially checking — any military moves by any other power in the region.

Along with the Baltic states and their respective environs, the Barents Sea is under constant surveillance by Russian fighter jets. Russia's dominance in the region was further solidified when, in late December, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a new military doctrine. In stark contrast to previous dictums, the Arctic region was officially put on the list of Russian spheres of influence for the first time. The same recognition applies to Russia's maritime doctrine, which has two major geopolitical imperatives: a thrust toward the Black Sea and dominion of the near Arctic.
The Norwegian Response

Although Russia's planned expansion in the Arctic may appear aggressive, military authorities in the Kremlin have no desire for an armed confrontation with Western powers. Moscow is aware of NATO's Article 5 agreement, which states that any attack on an individual member country could invoke a unified response from the alliance. Nevertheless, the increased Russian military presence in the region makes neighboring countries uneasy, particularly Norway.
Russia's Arctic Ambitions

Russia's actions in Ukraine, along with its military exploitation of the Arctic, forced Oslo to reassess Moscow's role and intent in the north, specifically in the area of the Barents Sea. Norway backed the Western application of sanctions against Russia, and subsequent motions from Oslo reveal a major shift in the country's strategic perception of Russia as a potential threat, in addition to highlighting the smaller country's inherent vulnerabilities. Yet, Norway is a leader when it comes to promoting NATO's role in the Arctic; it is the only country in the world that has its permanent military headquarters above the Arctic Circle. Although Norway contributed troops to the multinational force in Iraq and more than 500 personnel to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan — and was one of only seven NATO members to actually carry out air strikes during the Libya campaign — the primary force driver for its military is Arctic security. The Norwegians have invested extensively in Arctic defense capabilities, but, in terms of size and means, they are dwarfed by Russia. Because of this, Norwegian officials, both military and civilian, want to see NATO play a larger role in the Arctic.

Despite a tenuous degree of military cooperation between Norway and Russia in the past involving visits of military officials and occasional joint exercises, conventional wisdom dictated that Oslo did not hold any military exercises near its border with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. This reticence continued after the fall of the Iron Curtain, yet the Norwegian government recently announced its intent to conduct large-scale drills in Finnmark — a territory on the Russia-Norway border — in March 2015. The proposed maneuvers will be the country's largest military exercises since 1967. There is a growing recognition in Moscow that Norway's policy toward Russia is going through a major shift as a direct reaction to Moscow's push to militarize the Arctic region.
Russia's Perception of the Arctic

Russia appears to be gearing up for any eventuality in the Arctic, but its policy-makers are beginning to debate whether Russian pressure in the Arctic serves as a geopolitical pivot that could alter the regional balance of power. The emergence of a dominant Arctic player will certainly affect trans-Atlantic trade routes and commitments, relations between Russia and the northern European countries and relations between Russia and China. For half a century, the Arctic was an area of U.S.-Soviet friction and the site of numerous incidents that could easily have led to conflict. Even in a post-Cold War world, the region could once again be transformed into a zone of frozen conflicts. The great powers have long competed over the Arctic, and now countries such as China and India are expressing their own interest in the region.

Although Russia faces a raft of internal and external problems such as a strained economy, matters in Ukraine and pressure from the international community, the Kremlin remains wedded to its pursuit of the Arctic. This has forced Russia's neighbors to reassess their own military presence in places like the Barents Sea, as well as territorial claims to disputed parts of the Arctic Circle. Norway will press harder for a larger NATO presence in the northern region, but while military conflict remains a threat, Russia will stop short of instigating hostilities. The Kremlin knows that when it comes to acquisitions, actions speak louder than words, and any attempt to grab the rich, unclaimed territory of the Arctic Circle will have to be backed by force.
http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/russias-plans-arctic-supremacy#axzz3PMtY6OsF

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
"No hay mas diferencia entre los hombres que el vicio o la virtud" Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon.

No hay raza inferior; solo hay sujetos inferiores
Bendita se la muerte, porque a nadie le concede lo que no les da a todos los demas;alabada sea la muerte que se yergue piadosa ante el hombre que ha cumplido su deber.
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Re: A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

Mensaje por szasi el Septiembre 12th 2015, 20:25


The US is upping its intelligence game in the Arctic

Jeremy Bender

Sep. 8, 2015, 12:37 PM 1,641
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Arctic Airborne Alaska InfantryFlickr/DVIDS/Justin Connaher/US Air Force
Soldiers of the 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) partake in an Arctic airborne operation meant to further validate the unit's rapid insertion capability into Arctic conditions.
See Also


Pentagon report: Russia is deploying new, specially modified air-defense systems to the Arctic

Senator: The US is committing a 'strategic blunder' by removing troops from the Arctic as Russia digs in

US Coast Guard chief: We are 'not even in the same league as Russia' in the Arctic
With the Arctic ice melting and Russia aggressively fortifying its northern coast, the US has begun to up its spy game in the far north, the Los Angeles Times reports.

Hearkening back to the days of the Cold War, the US is assembling a team of intelligence analysts across the majority of the intelligence agencies to research the Arctic.

"Over the last 14 months, most of the 16 U.S. intelligence agencies have assigned analysts to work full time on the Arctic," the Times reports.

"The Office of the Director of National Intelligence recently convened a 'strategy board' to bring the analysts together to share their findings."

The intelligence analysts largely receive their data from orbiting US spy satellites. However, in addition to this information, the US is also receiving shared intelligence from a Canadian post near to the North Pole. The US is also upgrading a Norwegian surveillance ship for further use in the Arctic, the Times notes.

The US effort to up its intelligence game in the Arctic comes as the region takes on a growing importance on the world stage. The warming of the polar ice cap will likely reveal large untapped natural resources.

The US estimates that about 15% of the world's remaining oil, up to 30% of its natural gas deposits, and about 20% of its liquefied natural gas are stored in the Arctic seabed.

Additionally, receding Arctic ice would enable faster global shipping routes.

By 2030, the WSJ notes, the Northern Sea Route will be passable to shipping for nine months a year. The route could cut down travel time between Europe and East Asia by as much as 60% compared to current routes through the Panama or Suez Canals.

Russia has sought to capitalize on the warming of the Arctic by reopening a string of old Soviet bases along the coast, in addition to building new bases throughout the Arctic. Moscow's plans ultimately involve the opening of ten Arctic search-and-rescue stations, 16 deep-water ports, 13 airfields, and 10 air-defense radar stations across its Arctic periphery.


And Russia is not the only country to have taken a strong interest in the Arctic. Last week, five Chinese military vessels traveled into the Bering Sea. This marked the first time that the Chinese navy operated off the coast of Alaska.

Beijing has also demonstrated a strong interest in the Arctic, as any future trade routes through the far north would cut commercial travel time between Shanghai and northern Europe by 22% compared to current routes.

The growing competition in the Arctic has begun to cause concern in the US, which is lagging behind its adversaries up north.
http://www.businessinsider.com/the-us-is-upping-its-intelligence-game-in-the-arctic-2015-9?nr_email_referer=1&utm_content=MarketsSelect&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Sailthru
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Re: A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

Mensaje por ORAI el Septiembre 13th 2015, 05:42

Pues solo que se haga un acuerdo en el que el dinero de inversionistas y las ganancias vayan igual pero bueno es casi imposible.cuando son paises tan reacios a una estrecha cooperacion
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Re: A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

Mensaje por szasi el Octubre 30th 2015, 02:01

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Re: A la conquista del tope de la tierra: la pelea por los recursos del Polo Norte

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